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The Ultimate Pixar Animated Film Guide: 2015-2019

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The Ultimate Pixar Animated Film Guide
1995-1999 | 2000-2004 | 2005-2009 | 2010-2014 | 2015-2019
Lightning McQueen with DVDs

In 2015 Pixar remained firmly established at the very forefront of computer animation. Having already won 15 Academy Awards for their feature-length films and a further four for short films, they were unquestionably considered a byword for quality. Yet over the next five years Pixar would make more sequels than original films and also increase production, even making more than one film within a year. Would the quality of their creations suffer as a result, or would they retain their hard-earned place at the pinnacle of computer animated perfection?

The Films

The films made during this five year period are listed below, with recurring characters shown in Bold. This entry also states whether the films pass The Bechdel Test. This can be summarised as whether the film involves two or more female characters who have a conversation together that is not focused on male characters.

15. Inside Out (2015)

DirectorsPete Docter & Ronnie del Carmen
PlotWhen 11-year-old Riley Andersen moves with her family to San Francisco, she experiences sadness on an unprecedented scale. Her emotions, personified by Sadness, Fear, Disgust, Anger and Joy, try to cope with this change. When Joy tries to prevent Sadness from affecting Riley, it leads to them both being sucked out of Headquarters, where emotions can influence Riley's behaviour, and Riley becomes increasingly emotionally detached. Can the situation be solved before Riley runs away?
Length94 minutes
SettingInside Riley's head as she moves from Minnesota to San Francisco, 21st Century.
Riley's Emotions etc
  • Joy (Amy Poehler)
  • Sadness (Phyllis Smith)
  • Bing Bong, imaginary friend (Richard Kind)
  • Anger (Lewis Black)
  • Fear (Bill Hader)
  • Disgust (Mindy Kaling)
  • Riley Andersen, an 11-year-old girl (Kaitlyn Dias)
  • Mrs Andersen, Riley's mother (Diane Lane)
  • Mr Andersen, Riley's father (Kyle MacLachlan)
MusicSoundtrack composed by Michael Giacchino
Oscar2016 Best Animated Feature
Spin OffRiley's First Date? (2015) – Short film
Accompanying ShortLava (2014)
  • The family car drives past the telegraph wire seen in For The Birds.
  • Riley's favourite memory of her journey was seeing statues of dinosaur characters in The Good Dinosaur.
  • The dialogue Riley babbles as a toddler was re-used recordings of Mary Gibbs as 'Boo' in Monsters Inc.
  • Some of Riley's memory globes contain clips of previous Pixar films, such as Up, Cars 2 and the Pizza Planet van.
  • In Imagination Land there are two board games: one, about a clownfish named Find Me, was inspired by Finding Nemo, the other, named Dinosaur World, predicts The Good Dinosaur.
  • Figment the dragon found in EPCOT1 appears in Imagination Land.
  • The music heard when Riley has a nightmare about her new house is from Disney's The Haunted Mansion ride.

This highly-praised film was inspired by Pete Docter's relationship with his daughter. Some of the early proposed titles included Joy Story and Brain Trust. The film's key message about embracing all emotions, including sadness, to be a well-rounded individual gives the film a greater dimension and encourages viewers to think about how they think and feel about the world around them.

This was the second most successful animated film of the year after Illumination Entertainment's Minions, and was the tenth most successful animated film of all time on release.

The Beano published an issue in which their similar characters, the Numskulls2, watch Inside Out.

16. The Good Dinosaur (2015)

DirectorPeter Sohn
PlotArlo is the youngest Apatosaurus in a farming family and struggles to fit in. After encountering a caveboy 'critter', whom he blames for a family tragedy, Arlo is swept away in a river. Arlo and the caveboy, whom he names 'Spot', must work together to journey back to Arlo's home.
Length93 minutes
SettingAn earth populated by dinosaurs and cavemen
  • Arlo, a young Apatosaurus (Raymond Ochoa)
  • Spot, a caveboy (Jack Bright)
  • Poppa Henry, Arlo's father (Jeffrey Wright)
  • Momma Ida, Arlo's mother (Frances McDormand)
  • Buck, Arlo's brother (Marcus Scribner)
  • Libby, Arlo's sister (Maleah Padilla)
  • Butch, a father Tyrannosaurus (Sam Elliott)
  • Ramsey and Nash, Tyrannosaurus (Anna Paquin and AJ Buckley)
  • Thunderclap, Downpour & Coldfront, pterodactyls (Steve Zahn, Mandy Freund & Steven Clay Hunter)
MusicComposed by brothers Mychael and Jeff Danna.
Accompanying ShortSanjay's Super Team (2015)
  • There is a Pizza Planet van-shaped asteroid at the start.
  • Arlo and Spot hallucinate the Luxo ball.
  • There is also a Pizza Planet van-shaped rock.
BechdelNarrow Pass

This was the first time that Pixar released two films in the same year, and some wondered whether the increase in the quantity of films impacted on this film's quality as it is not up to the expected standard. The film was originally going to be directed by Bob Peterson, who had been inspired by dinosaurs as a child, with a cast of John Lithgow, Judy Greer, Bill Hader, Neil Patrick Harris and Lucas Neff. Yet during production in 2013, Peterson was replaced by Peter Sohn and the cast was completely changed. It was announced that the dinosaurs could be seen as villains, rather than heroic characters.

This was the sixth most successful animated film of the year after Illumination Entertainment's Minions, Inside Out, Sony Pictures Animation's Hotel Transylvania, DreamWorks Animation's Home and Paramount Animation/Nickelodeon Movies' The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water. It was the third Pixar film not to be nominated for an Oscar, following Cars 2 and Monsters University and is the lowest-grossing Pixar film to date.

17. Finding Dory (2016)

DirectorAndrew Stanton
PlotDory remembers losing her parents as a child and is determined to find them. With Nemo and Marlin, she travels across the ocean to California's Marine Life Institute in Morro Bay. Separated from Nemo and Marlin, she is aided in her quest to find her parents by a grumpy octopus called Hank.
Length97 minutes
SettingUnderwater between Great Barrier Reef and the Marine Life Institute, Morro Bay, California
  • Marlin, a clownfish (Albert Brooks)
  • Dory, a blue tang (Ellen DeGeneres, Young Dory: Sloane Murray)
  • Nemo, a clownfish (Hayden Rolence)
  • Hank, a red octopus with seven arms (Ed O'Neill)
  • Jenny, a blue tang and Dory's mother (Diane Keaton)
  • Charlie, a blue tang and Dory's father (Eugene Levy)
  • Destiny, a whale shark (Kaitlin Olson)
  • Bailey, a beluga whale (Ty Burrell)
  • Fluke, a sea lion (Idris Elba)
  • Voice of Sigourney Weaver (Sigourney Weaver)
  • Crush, a turtle (Andrew Stanton)
  • Squirt, a turtle (Nicholas Bird)
  • Mr Ray, a manta ray (Bob Peterson)
MusicSoundtrack by Thomas Newman
  • 'Unforgettable' by Irving Gordon
  • 'What a Wonderful World' by Robert Thiele & George David Weiss, performed by Louis Armstrong
Sequel To
  • 5. Finding Nemo (2003)
Accompanying ShortPiper (2016)
  • The fish that escape from the tank in Finding Nemo appear at the very end (Gill, Bloat, Peach, Gurgle, Bubbles, Deb and Jacques).
  • A Pizza Planet van can be seen sunk to the bottom of the sea near the Giant Squid's lair, and also appears overtaking the lorry on the road to Cleveland.
  • Minor background characters from Toy Story 3, Finding Nemo and Inside Out appear as visitors to the Marine Institute.
  • A Herbie-like Volkswagen beetle can be seen at the bottom of the sea.

Many of the child characters in Finding Nemo were voiced by children who have since grown up. This means that Nemo and Squirt are played by different actors. However Alexander Gould, the original voice of Nemo, does appear as a lorry driver. The shrimp Jacques had originally been played by writer/director Joe Ranft, who died in 2005. In Finding Dory Jacques is played by Joe's brother Jerome.

Finding Dory was incredibly successful. It was the most successful animated film of 2016, the second most successful Pixar film ever and the fourth most successful animated film at date of release, behind only Frozen (2013), Minions (2015) and Toy Story 3 (2010). Despite this, it too was not nominated for an Oscar. It has been viewed by many as a film that positively portrays a disabled main character.

18. Cars 3 (2017)

DirectorsBrian Free
PlotSeven-time Piston Cup winning racer Lightning McQueen finds himself outclassed by new, arrogant racer Jackson Storm. After a violent crash he is desperate to prove he still has what it takes to be a racer but clashes with the modern methods proposed by his trainer, Cruz Ramirez, preferring to go back to basics. Faced with being forcibly retired by Rust-Eze's new owner and wishing to avoid the same fate as the Hudson Hornet, he makes a bet. If he wins the Florida 500 he will determine when he retires. If not, he will immediately retire from the sport that is his passion.
Length109 minutes
SettingVarious locations across America in a world populated with cars especially Radiator Springs, Florida
  • Lightning McQueen, a veteran racing car (Owen Wilson)
  • Cruz Ramirez, McQueen's trainer who had wanted to be a racer (Cristela Alonzo)
  • Jackson Storm, new-generation racer and rival who is much faster than Lightning (Armie Hammer)
  • Doc Hudson, a legendary 1950s Hudson Hornet racing car and Lightning's deceased mentor (Paul Newman)
  • Mater, a 1950s rusty tow truck and Lightning's best friend (Larry the Cable Guy)
  • Sally Carrerra, a Porsche and Lightning's girlfriend (Bonnie Hunt)
  • Smokey, Doc Hudson's former crew chief (Chris Cooper)
  • Sterling, new owner of Rust-Eze who believes Lightning should retire (Nathan Fillion)
  • Luigi, a Fiat 500 (Tony Shalhoub)
  • Guido, a forklift truck (Guido Quaroni)
  • Mack, Lightning McQueen's lorry (John Ratzenberger)
  • Miss Fritter, demolition derby monster bus (Lea DeLaria)
  • Hamilton, Cruz's voice command assistant (Lewis Hamilton)
  • Ramone, a Chevrolet Lowrider (Cheech Marin)
  • Sheriff, a 1949 Mercury Police Car (Michael Wallis)
  • Fillmore, a 1960 Volkswagen camper van (Lloyd Sherr)
  • Sarge, a 1942 Willys Jeep (Paul Dooley)
  • Flo, a 1950s show car (Jenifer Lewis)
  • Strip 'The King' Weathers, crew chief for his nephew Cal (Richard Petty)
  • Cal Weathers, Lightning McQueen's rival and friend (Kyle Petty)
  • Chick Hicks, a racing car (Bob Petersen)
  • Lizzie, a model T Ford (Katherine Helmond)
  • Red, a fire engine (Jerome Ranft)
MusicMusic composed by Randy Newman, songs:
  • 'Run that Race' by Dan Auerbach
  • 'King's Highway' by Tom Petty
  • 'Truckaroo' by Brad Paisley
  • 'Thunder Hollow Breakdown' by Brad Paisley
  • 'Glory Days' by Bruce Springsteen
  • 'Ride' by ZZ Ward, Evan Bogart and Dave Bassett
Other Films in the Series
  • 7. Cars (2006)
  • 12. Cars 2 (2011)
  • Planes (2013) – similar film by DisneyToon Studios
  • Planes: Fire & Rescue (2014) – similar film by DisneyToon Studios
  • Mater and the Ghostlight (2006) – short film
  • Cars Toons: Mater's Tall Tales (2008-2012) – short films
  • Cars Toons: Tales from Radiator Springs (2013-2014) – short films
Accompanying Short
  • Lou (2017)
  • The Pizza Planet van first seen in Toy Story appears in the demolition derby.
  • Jackson Storm races at the Buy N Large racetrack, named after the company seen in WALL·E.
  • A sign advertising the Sleep-Well Motel from Toy Story of Terror is seen.
  • One of the car's being trained misses his home, which appears to be the same town as in upcoming film Coco.

Paul Newman's performance as Doc Hudson was created using scenes recorded and not used for Cars, as Paul Newman had died in 2008. Bob Petersen has replaced Michael Keaton as the voice of Chick Hicks. Two other voice changes include Lloyd Sher, who since Cars 2 had replaced the late George Carlin as Fillmore, and Jerome Ranft replacing his older brother, Pixar writer and director Joe Ranft who died in 2005, as Red.

Cars 3 was the fourth most-successful animated film of the year, behind Illumination's Despicable Me 3, Pixar's Coco and DreamWorks Animation's The Boss Baby. It made under half the box office of Coco and only a little more than The Good Dinosaur.

19. Coco (2017)

DirectorLee Unkrich

In Santa Cecilia Mexico, 12-year-old Miguel longs to play the guitar, worshipping deceased Mexican musician/actor Ernesto de la Cruz, who was from his hometown. However music is banned in his shoe-making family. On the Day of the Dead Miguel accidentally breaks a photograph that was displayed on the family ofrenda or shrine to the dead. The photograph was of his great-grandmother Coco and her parents, including her never-discussed father. Although Coco's father's head has been torn out of the picture, Miguel recognises the guitar he carries as having belonged to de la Cruz.

Believing de la Cruz was his great-great-grandfather, Miguel takes de la Cruz's guitar; however, he is cursed and finds himself invisible to the living, but able to interact with the Dead. Each year on the Day of the Dead the Dead can cross over to visit the living if they have a picture on an ofrenda. Only if Miguel is blessed by one of his dead ancestors will he be able to return to the land of the living, but his great-great-grandmother withholds her blessing unless he promises to abandon music.

Will Miguel find his great-great-grandfather, get his blessing and return to the land of the living before he fades away? Or will he be doomed to live a life without music or song?

Length105 minutes
Setting1920s and early 21st Century Mexico and the Land of the Dead on Día de Muertos, the Day of the Dead
The Living
  • Miguel, 12-year-old shoemaker who longs to be a musician (Anthony Gonzalez)
  • Mamá Coco, Miguel's elderly great-grandmother (Ana Ofelia Murguía)
The Dead
  • Héctor, charming but unloved rogue who longs to visit his daughter before he is forgotten (Gael García Bernal)
  • Ernesto de la Cruz, famous musician and actor idolised by Miguel (Benjamin Bratt, singing: Antonio Sol)
  • Mam´ Imelda, Miguel's strict music-hating great-great-grandmother (Alanna Ubach)
MusicMusic composed by Germaine Franco and Adrian Molina unless stated
  • 'Remember Me' by Kristen Anderson-Lopez & Robert Lopez
  • 'Much Needed Advice' by Germaine Franco, Michael Giacchino & Adrian Molina
  • 'Everyone Knows Juanita'
  • 'Un Poco Loco'
  • 'The World Es Mi Familia'
  • 'La Llorona' (Traditional)
  • 'Proud Corazón'
  • 2018 Best Animated Feature
  • 2018 Best Original Song ('Remember Me')
Accompanying Short
  • Olaf's Frozen Adventure3 (2017)
  • The office is labelled A113 and Hector is person 1138 to go through the gate to the land of the living, a reference to cameos in Star Wars from George Lucas' first film, THX1138.
  • The Pizza Planet van drives by the cobblers on the cobbles.
  • One of the Spirit Animals looks like Toy Story's Rex.

Coco was the second most successful animated film of the year, behind only Despicable Me 3, and was on release the 15th most successful animated film of all time. As the film had a strong Mexican theme, unsurprisingly it became the most successful film in that country. It was also the most expensive film ever made with an all-Latino cast. Dog Dante is named after 13th-Century author Dante Alighieri, famous for The Divine Comedy, in which Dante visits Hell, Purgatory and Heaven.

20. Incredibles 2 (2018)

DirectorBrad Bird
PlotBeginning immediately after the end of The Incredibles, Elastigirl is hired to combat crime and prove that the world needs superheroes after all. Mr Incredible stays at home to look after their children, yet feels angry that he is missing out. Elastigirl is up against a villain called Screenslaver who can hypnotise anyone who looks at a computer or television screen.
Length125 minutes
SettingFictional cities of Metroville, New Urbem and Municiberg in 1960s-esque era
The Incredibles
  • Bob Parr aka Mr Incredible (Craig T Nelson)
    • Powers: Strength
  • Helen Parr aka Elastigirl (Holly Hunter)
    • Powers: Can stretch her body like rubber into any shape
  • Violet Parr aka Invisible Girl (Sarah Vowell)
    • Powers: Can become invisible and create force shields
  • Dashiell Parr aka Dash (Spencer Fox)
    • Powers: Superspeed
  • Jack-Jack Parr (Eli Fucile & Nicholas Bird)
    • Powers: too many to mention
  • Lucius Best aka Frozone (Samuel L Jackson)
    • Powers: Can create ice from humidity in the air
  • Edna Mode (Brad Bird)
  • Winston Deavor, pro-superhero campaigner (Bob Odenkirk)
  • Evelyn Deavor, Winston's younger sister and genius (Catherine Keener)
  • The Screenslaver, evil hypnotist (Bill Wise)
  • Rick Dicker, government agent who helps superheroes (Jonathan Banks)
MusicSoundtrack composed by Michael Giacchino
Other Films in the Series
  • 6. The Incredibles (2004)
Accompanying ShortBao (2018)
Spin Offs
  • Jack-Jack Attack (2005)
  • Mr Incredible and Pals (2005)
  • The opening scene with Rick Dicker interrogating Tony Rydinger is almost identical to Jack-Jack Attack.
  • There is the same brand of Chinese takeaway packaging from A Bug's Life and Inside Out, and posters advertise Inside Out's 'Tripledent Gum'.
  • The Luxo Ball pattern can be seen in Jack Jack's cot while the Luxo, Jr. lamp is in Screenslaver's apartment.
  • A113 frequently appears, most notably at the cinema.
  • The Pizza Planet van, modified to match the style of the cars seen in the film, can be glimpsed when Elastigirl saves Screenslaver.
  • Woody's hat can be briefly seen on a billboard during the helicopter sequence.
  • Jack-Jack has a Duke Caboom toy from Toy Story 4.

The film is dedicated to Bud Luckey who had voiced Rick Dicker in The Incredibles and had died earlier in 2018. Huck Milner replaced Spencer Fox as Dash while Nicholas Bird provided some additional noises for Jack-Jack. The film begins with a 1960s stylised version of the Disney castle logo. It is also the longest computer-animated film to date.

Incredibles 2 was the most successful animated film of the year at the box office, making far more than its closest two rivals, Disney's Ralph Breaks the Internet and Sony's Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation, combined. It became the seventh animation film to make over $1 billion4 and on release was the second most successful animated film of all time after Disney's Frozen. Though nominated for a Best Animated Film Oscar it did not win.

21. Toy Story 4 (2019)

DirectorJosh Cooley

Nine years after Andy's sister Molly gave away her Bo Peep lamp, Andy's favourite toy Woody has to adjust to being now owned by Bonnie and not one of her favourites. Sneakily accompanying her to her orientation day at nursery, he gives her some art equipment that had been thrown away, with which she makes her own toy, Forky, out of a discarded spork.

Forky quickly becomes Bonnie's favourite toy. However, he longs to throw himself away into a bin. As Bonnie goes on a road trip she takes her toys, including Forky, with her. Woody fails to stop Forky from throwing himself away. When he goes out to rescue him, Woody encounters both Gabby Gabby, a defective doll without a working voicebox that has never been played with, who kidnaps Forky, and Bo Peep, now a strong, independent lost toy living without a child by a carnival. Can Woody convince Bo and her lost toy friends to help him rescue Forky and return him to Bonnie?

Length96 minutes
SettingUSA, 21st Century
  • Woody, a sheriff cowboy toy (Tom Hanks)
  • Buzz Lightyear, a plastic space ranger (Tim Allen)
  • Bo Peep, former antique turned lost toy (Annie Potts)
  • Forky, a spork Bonnie made into a toy (Tony Hale)
  • Ducky, sideshow prize (Keegan-Michael Key)
  • Bunny, sideshow prize (Jordan Peele)
  • Gabby Gabby, broken unloved toy (Christina Hendricks)
  • Duke Caboom, stunt toy that didn't live up to adverts (Keanu Reeves)
  • Giggle McDimples, small policewoman toy (Ally Maki)
  • Jessie, a yodelling cowgirl toy (Joan Cusack)
  • Dolly, a ragdoll and Bonnie's head toy (Bonnie Hunt)
  • Trixie, triceratops toy (Kristen Schaal)
  • Billy, Goat & Gruff, Bo's sheep (Emily Davis)
  • Rex, a cowardly dinosaur (Wallace Shawn)
  • Hamm, a piggy bank (John Ratzenberger)
  • Slinky Dog (Blake Clark)
  • Combat Carls, toy soldiers (Carl Weathers)
  • Mr Potato Head (Don Rickles)
  • Mr Pricklepants (Timothy Dalton)
  • Buttercup (Jeff Garlin)
  • Bullseye, Woody's horse
  • Bonnie Anderson (Madeleine McGraw)
  • Bonnie's Parents (Jay Hernandez & Lori Alan)
  • Margaret, Antique Shop Owner (June Squibb)
  • Harmony, Margaret's granddaughter (Lila Sage Bromley)
  • Andy Davis, toys' previous owner (Jack McGraw & John Morris)
MusicBy Randy Newman
  • 'You've Got a Friend in Me'
  • 'I Can't Let You Throw Yourself Away'
  • 'The Ballad of the Lonesome Cowboy'
Related Films
  • 1. Toy Story (1995)
  • 3. Toy Story 2 (1999)
  • 10. Toy Story 3 (2010)
Spin OffsShort films unless stated:
  • Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins (2000)
  • Buzz Lightyear of Star Command (2000-2001) - cartoon series.
  • Toy Story Toons: Hawaiian Vacation (2011)
  • Toy Story Toons: Small Fry (2011)
  • Toy Story Toons: Partysaurus Rex (2012)
  • Toy Story of Terror! (2013)
  • Toy Story That Time Forgot (2014)
Oscar2020 Best Animated Feature
  • Bing Bong's rocket from Inside Out, P Sherman's diving mask and Carl's house in Up, film reels of Pixar shorts and even a Pixar Image Computer are among the many items on the antique shop's shelves, many of which are based on items in other Pixar films..
  • The Pizza Planet van can be seen on a tattoo on a carnival worker's leg.
  • Woody impersonates the famous Mickey Mouse Phone.
  • Tinny from Tin Toy (1988) finally appears in a Toy Story film.
  • The record player plays 'Midnight, the Stars and You', the song prominently heard in horror film The Shining (1980). There is also a record by de la Cruz from Coco.
  • Star Wars figures include Ob-Wan Kenobi, who cuts off toy Ponda's arm with a lightsabre.
  • The antiques shop opened in 1986, the same year Pixar became an independent company.
  • There is a Reptilius Maximus lunchbox from Toy Story that Time Forgot.
  • There is a logo for Tripledent Gum, which had a catchy jingle in Inside Out
  • The petrol station is Dinoco.
  • Boo from Monsters Inc is at the carnival
  • The skunk vehicle is powered by BnL batteries, with other BnL (Buy & Large) products in the film

With Toy Story 3 the perfect ending to the series, many wondered during production what this film would have to offer; however, it is surprisingly moving. The only criticism is that it does not feature Buzz Lightyear as prominently as in previous films. The film is dedicated to Don Rickles, the voice artist who played Mr Potato Head, who died before filming began. His family requested that he appear in the film and so, by using archive recordings of him made for previous films, computer games, etc, he appears posthumously.

Toy Story 4 not only won the Best Animated Film Oscar, it was also the second most-successful animated film of the year, behind only Frozen II5.

The Future

Though Pixar's performance continued to impress, by the end of 2019 the studio had undergone a number of changes in key personnel. In late 2017 John Lasseter, Pixar's original Executive Producer and Chief Creative Officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar, admitted sexual misconduct6, resulting in an initial six month leave-of-absence followed by an announcement he would step down at the end of 2018. He was replaced as Chief Creative Officer at Pixar by Pete Docter, who had directed Monsters, Inc (2001), Up (2009) and Inside Out (2015). Founder Ed Catmul announced his plans to retire in 2019 and shortly afterwards key director Lee Unkrich announced he would be leaving Pixar, having been with the studio for 25 years.

In early 2019 Pete Docter announced that the films Pixar had next in production would be original films rather than sequels. In an era in which the animation landscape had changed, with many of the key studios consolidated into two conglomerates (the Walt Disney Corporation owning Disney, Pixar and Blue Sky while Universal own Illumination and DreamWorks Animation), what would the future hold for Pixar? The poor performance of films such as The Good Dinosaur and Cars 3 could be interpreted as meaning a loss of both quality and profit when they released multiple films in the same year, so would Pixar adjust the frequency of their films in the foreseeable future?

2020 and the Covid-19 virus brought a deadly challenge no-one foresaw that disrupted the entire way of life of people all around the world, with cinema and the animation industry just one area affected.

1Experimental Prototype Community Of Tomorrow theme park, part of the Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Florida2Created in 1962, the Numskulls have appeared in The Beezer and The Dandy as well as The Beano.3Only in North America where the film was released in November 2017. Other territories, such as the UK where the film was released in January 2018, did not have an accompanying short and Olaf's Frozen Adventure accompanied the December 2017 re-release of Frozen (2013). This is the first Pixar film to be accompanied by a non-Pixar short.4Short scale billion of one thousand million, also known as a milliard, not the long scale billion of a million million.5The remake of The Lion King was more successful, but it counted as live-action because it featured motion-capture rather than frame-by-frame animation.6Lasseter admitted he had on numerous occasions grabbed, kissed and made inappropriate comments regarding female members of staff, often, but not always, following the consumption of alcohol.

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